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This makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory ROM chips, which are used to store program code that rarely needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes.

Its endurance may be from as little as erase cycles for an on-chip flash memory, [23] to a more typical 10, orerase cycles, up to 1, erase cycles. NAND flash has reduced erase and write times, and requires less chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage density and lower cost per bit than NOR flash. Rather, data must be read on a block-wise basis, with typical block sizes of hundreds to thousands of bits. This makes NAND flash unsuitable as a drop-in replacement for program ROM, since most microprocessors and microcontrollers require byte-level random access.

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In this regard, NAND flash is similar to other secondary data storage devicessuch as hard disks and optical mediaand is thus highly suitable for use in mass-storage devices, such as memory cards and solid-state drives SSD. For example, the microSD card has an area of just over 1. NAND flash has achieved significant levels of memory density as a result of several major technologies that were opțiuni binare blitz during the late s to early s.

Chu but was not used for flash memory production until CTF technology replaces the polysilicon floating gate, which is sandwiched between a blocking gate oxide above and a tunneling oxide below it, with an electrically insulating silicon nitride layer; the silicon nitride layer traps electrons.

In theory, CTF is less prone to electron leakage, providing improved data retention. However, electrons can become trapped and accumulate in the nitride, leading to degradation, Leakage is exacerbated at high temperatures since electrons become more excitated with increasing temperatures. CTF technology however still opțiuni binare blitz a tunneling oxide and blocking layer which are the weak points of the technology, since they can still be damaged in the usual ways the tunnel oxide can be degraded due to extremely high voltage densities and the blocking layer due to Anode Hot Hole Injection AHHI.

The oxides must insulate against electrons to prevent them from leaking which would cause data loss.

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InNEC researchers including N. Kodama, K. Oyama and Hiroki Shirai described a type of flash memory with a charge trap method. Fastow, Egyptian engineer Khaled Z. Ahmed and Jordanian engineer Sameer Haddad who later joined Spansion demonstrated a charge-trapping mechanism for NOR opțiuni binare blitz memory cells. In single-level cell SLC devices, each cell stores only one bit of information.

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The floating gate may be conductive typically polysilicon in most kinds of flash memory or non-conductive as in SONOS flash memory. The cells can be seen as an electrical switch in which current flows between two terminals source and drain and is controlled by a floating gate FG and a control gate CG.

Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, electrons placed on it are trapped. When the FG is charged with electrons, this charge screens the electric field from the CG, thus, increasing the threshold voltage VT1 of the cell.

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This means that now a higher voltage VT2 must be applied to the CG to make the channel conductive. If the channel conducts at this intermediate voltage, the FG must be uncharged if it was charged, we would not get conduction because the intermediate voltage is less than VT2and hence, a logical opțiuni binare blitz is stored in the gate.

If the channel does not conduct at the intermediate voltage, it indicates that the FG is charged, and hence, a logical "0" is stored in the gate. The presence of a logical "0" or "1" is sensed by determining whether there is current flowing through the transistor when the intermediate voltage is asserted on the CG. In a multi-level cell device, which stores more than one bit per cell, the amount of current flow is sensed rather than simply its presence or absencein order to determine more precisely the level of charge on the FG.

Floating gate MOSFETs are so named because there is an electrically insulating tunnel oxide layer between the gate and the silicon, so the gate "floats" above the silicon.

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The oxide keeps the electrons confined to the floating gate. Degradation or wear and the limited endurance of floating gate Opțiuni binare blitz memory occurs due to the extremely high electric field 10 million volts per centimeter experienced by the oxide.

Such high voltage densities can break atomic bonds over time in the relatively thin oxide, gradually degrading its electrically insulating properties and allowing electrons to be trapped in and pass through freely leak from the floating gate into the oxide, increasing the likelihood of data loss since the electrons the quantity of which is used to represent different charge levels, each assigned to a different combination of bits in MLC Flash are normally in the floating gate.

This is why data retention goes down and the risk of data loss increases with increasing degradation.

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This, in turn, changes the drain-source current that flows through the transistor for a given gate voltage, which is ultimately used to encode a binary value. The Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect is reversible, so electrons can be added to or removed from the floating gate, processes traditionally known as writing and erasing. Over half the energy used by a 1. This arrangement is called "NOR face bani pentru noul an because it acts like a NOR gate: when one of the word lines connected to the cell's CG is brought high, the corresponding storage transistor acts to pull the output bit line low.

NOR flash continues to be the technology of choice for embedded applications requiring a discrete non-volatile memory opțiuni binare blitz. The low read latencies characteristic of NOR devices allow for both direct code execution and data storage in a single memory product. Erasing[ edit ] To erase a NOR flash cell resetting it to the "1" statea large voltage of the opțiuni binare blitz polarity is applied between the CG and source terminal, pulling the electrons off the FG through quantum tunneling.

Modern NOR flash memory chips are divided into erase segments often called blocks or sectors. The erase operation can be performed only on a block-wise basis; all the cells in an erase segment must be erased together.

Programming of NOR cells, however, generally can be performed one byte or word at a time. NAND flash memory wiring and structure on silicon NAND flash[ platforma de investiții 5 ] NAND flash also uses floating-gate transistorsbut they are connected in a way that resembles a NAND gate : several transistors are connected in series, and the bit line is pulled low only if all the word lines are pulled opțiuni binare blitz above the transistors' VT.

These groups are then connected via some additional transistors to a NOR-style bit line array in the same way that single transistors are linked in NOR flash. Compared to NOR flash, replacing single transistors with serial-linked groups adds an extra level of addressing. Bit-level addressing suits bit-serial applications such as hard disk emulationwhich access only one bit at a time. Execute-in-place applications, on the other hand, require every bit in a word to be accessed simultaneously.

This requires word-level addressing. To read data, first the desired group is selected in the same way that a single transistor is selected from a NOR array. Next, most of the word lines are pulled up above the VT of a programmed bit, while one of them is pulled up to just over the VT of an erased bit.

The series group will conduct and pull the bit line low if the selected bit has not been programmed. Despite the additional transistors, the reduction in ground wires and bit lines allows a denser layout and greater storage capacity per chip. The ground wires and bit lines are actually much wider than the lines in the diagrams.

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Manufacturers try to maximize the amount of usable storage by shrinking the size of the transistors. NAND Flash cells are read by analysing their response to various voltages. NAND flash memory forms the core of the removable USB storage devices known as USB flash drivesas well as most memory card formats and solid-state drives available today.

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The hierarchical structure of NAND Flash starts at a cell level which establishes strings, then pages, blocks, planes and ultimately a die. A string is a series of connected NAND cells in which the source of one cell is connected to the drain of the next one.

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Strings are organised into pages which are then organised into blocks in which each string is connected to a separate line called a bitline BL All cells with the same position in the string are connected through the control gates by a wordline WL A plane contains a certain number of blocks that are connected through the same BL. The architecture of NAND Flash means that data can be read and programmed in pages, typically between 4 KiB and 16 KiB in size, but can only be erased at the level of entire blocks consisting of multiple pages and MB in size.

When a block is erased all the cells are logically set to 1.

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Data can only be opțiuni binare blitz in one pass to a page in a block that was erased. Any cells that have been set to 0 by programming can only be reset to 1 by erasing the entire block. This means that before new data can be programmed into a page that already contains data, the current contents of the page plus the new data must be copied to a new, erased page.

If a suitable page is available, the data can be written to it opțiuni binare blitz. If no erased page is available, a block must be erased before copying the data to a page in that block. The old page is then marked as invalid and is available for erasing and reuse.

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The vertical layers allow larger areal bit densities without requiring smaller individual cells. Such a film is more robust against point defects and can be made thicker to hold larger numbers of electrons.

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V-NAND wraps a planar charge trap cell into a cylindrical form.